民航论坛_民航社区_航空翻译_民航英语翻译_飞行翻译_Aviation English Translation

 找回密码
 注册
搜索
查看: 2400|回复: 5

高强度合金钢部件的维修 [复制链接]

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

发表于 2009-12-9 16:54:31 |显示全部楼层
Many landing gear, flap track, flap carriage, and other flap actuating components on Boeing airplanes are made of high-strength alloy steels, such as 300M, Hy-Tuf, 4340M, and 4330M. These components provide structural benefits (e.g., reliable, durable design) and strength characteristics that permit an efficient use of available airframe space. Other steels in use, including 9Ni-4Co-0.3C, AerMet 100, and precipitation hardened stainless steels, have similar maintenance and overhaul requirements. (Note: High-strength alloy steels referenced in this article generally have been heat-treated above 180 ksi [180,000 psi]; most have been heat-treated above 220 ksi.)
波音飞机的起落架、襟翼滑轨、襟翼滑架和其它襟翼作动部件大多采用了高强度合金钢材料,诸如300M、Hy-Tuf、4340M和4330M。这些部件在结构上(可靠性、耐久性设计)和强度上都享有优势,使飞机的机身结构得以有效利用。飞机上使用到的其它钢材还有9Ni-4Co-0.3C、AerMet 100和快速硬化的不锈钢,它们的维护和大修要求相似。(注:本文所论述的高强度合金钢通常是指热处理强度达到180 ksi以上的合金钢,多数合金钢的热处理强度达到220 ksi以上。)

Airline personnel should follow proper maintenance procedures and Boeing-provided rework practices, checklists, and planning guidelines during maintenance and overhaul of these components. This will help operators achieve the benefits associated with high-strength alloy steels and avoid potential safety issues resulting from damage caused by stress concentrations, detrimental surface conditions, corrosion, improper processing, or other factors.

航空公司在维修和大修部件时应当依据适当的维护程序和波音提供的改装实施方案、检查程序和维修计划,才能充分发挥高强度合金钢材料的优势并避免由于应力集中、飞机表面状况不良、腐蚀、加工不当或其它原因导致的损伤而引发安全问题。

This article discusses some factors that cause damage in service or during overhaul. Most can be attributed to a lack of familiarity with high-strength alloy steels. Operators usually recognize the benefits of using these steels; however, certain characteristics of the steels are not always given proper consideration during component maintenance or overhaul. These characteristics, including sensitivity to corrosion pitting, susceptibility to microstructural damage resulting from embrittlement, and notch sensitivity, can lead to rapid crack growth in some load environments.

本文讨论了维护或大修过程中造成损伤的原因。损伤的大多数原因是由于缺乏对高强度合金钢的认识。航空公司通常只知道这些钢材的优势,然而,在部件维修或大修中并没有对钢材的特性给予足够的重视。这些特性诸如对腐蚀斑点的敏感性、对氢脆化造成的微小结构损伤的敏感性和对刻痕的敏感性会导致一些受力部分的裂纹快速扩展。

1. BENEFITS OF HIGH-STRENGTH ALLOY STEEL 高强度不锈钢材料的优点

Components made of high-strength alloy steel generally weigh less and require less space to house than components made of lower strength alloys. Using high-strength alloy steel for component design provides an opportunity to do the same job with less material. When properly maintained and overhauled, high-strength alloy steel components demonstrate high levels of service reliability.

高强度合金钢材料部件比低强度合金材料部件更轻便,更节省空间,采用高强度合金钢的部件可以减少材料的消耗。只要维修和大修得当,高强度合金钢部件就会表现出极高的可靠性。

The decision to use high-strength alloy steels is based on weight and economic factors. Airframe space for gear components may be reduced because of smaller diameter shock strut components, smaller pins (reduced space for joints), smaller diameter trucks and axles, and, in some instances, smaller drag brace, side brace, and attach fittings. By reducing the space required for these components, the wheel well size can be minimized and aerodynamic surfaces can be optimized, which allow an increase in fuel tank size (optimal wing spar location) or additional space for other uses.

是否采用高强度合金钢取决于飞机重量和经济因素。通过采用小直径的减振支柱部件、小剪切销(减少了连接件的大小)、小直径的支柱和轴,还有小的阻力撑杆、斜撑杆和接头,飞机起落架部件要求的空间有望减小。这些部件所占空间减小后,轮舱的尺寸就可以减到最小,气动表面可以达到优化,从而增加燃油箱的大小(大翼油箱)或者增加其它的空间。

The use of high-strength alloy steel parts is economical because it reduces weight, thereby allowing for more efficient aerodynamic surfaces and providing the potential for increased payload and fuel.

高强度合金钢有重量轻的优势,使用高强度合金钢就比较经济实惠,从而赢得更有效的气动表面并有望增加承载能力和燃油储量。

For example, the trailing edge of the wing is relatively shallow. Using high-strength alloy steel flap tracks, flap carriages, and flap actuating components reduces the profile and decreases spatial envelope requirements while meeting or improving aerodynamic requirements. This also optimizes wing shape and reduces the potential need for bulging aerodynamic surfaces, which in turn reduces drag and increases airplane performance.

例如,大翼后缘的厚度相对较薄。使用高强度合金钢的襟翼滑轨、襟翼滑架和襟翼作动组件可以减小剖面尺寸并减小所占空间要求,同时满足或改善气动要求。这些优势有助于优化大翼外形并减少气动凸表,从而减小阻力并提高飞机的性能。

2. IMPORTANCE OF PROPER INSPECTION AND REWORK 检查和翻修的必要性

Following proper rework practices and using Boeing-provided documents during maintenance and overhaul are necessary to achieve the benefits associated with high-strength alloy steel components and help ensure safe airplane operation.

在维护和大修时有必要遵循相关的翻修实施方案并使用波音提供的文件,充分发挥高强度合金钢部件的优势并确保飞机操作的安全性。

Airline personnel who participate in component rework, maintenance, and overhaul tasks should be familiar with the properties of high-strength steels and understand the negative effects that can result from

负责部件翻修、维修和大修人员应当熟知高强度合金钢的性质并了解以下负面效应

Sensitivity to stress concentrations (notch sensitivity).对应力集中(刻痕敏感性)的敏感性
Microstructural damage from embrittlement or overheating.氢脆和过热造成的微结构损伤
Detrimental surface conditions.表面状况不良
Corrosion.腐蚀
Improper processing. 加工不当
Improper rework practices can result in unscheduled maintenance or surface damage that causes crack initiation. Maintenance efforts focus on corrosion prevention and removal in addition to normal checks for wear and free play.

翻修不当可能会造成非计划性维修和表面损伤从而造成裂纹。维护时应当重点关注腐蚀的预防和去除并加强常规检查,防止损伤和自由位移。

High-strength alloy steels can experience rapid crack propagation from stress corrosion under certain loading conditions. Therefore, surface damage detection is important during overhaul and on components in service. Removing visible surface corrosion before pitting begins (such as during a C-check) helps prevent conditions that can lead to crack initiation. The best safeguard against corrosion is to ensure that finishes conform to the design and that design improvements are incorporated as minor changes whenever possible.

高强度合金钢在一定的载荷下承受应力腐蚀会造成裂纹的快速扩展。因此,在大修和部件维护时,检查表面损伤状况很有必要。在出现斑点之前去除可见的表面腐蚀(诸如C-检)有助于预防发生裂纹。设计上已经考虑了任何可能的微小变化,因此,预防腐蚀的最好方法就是确保按照设计方案涂涂层。

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

发表于 2009-12-9 16:54:43 |显示全部楼层
Components manufactured from steel alloys heat-treated above 180 ksi (180,000 psi) should be reworked in accordance with guidelines in Component Maintenance Manuals (CMM) 32-00-05, 32-00-06, and 32-00-07. Although these guidelines apply directly to landing gear components, they can be used to plan the overhaul rework of all high-strength steel components. Standard Overhaul Practices Manual (SOPM) 20-10-01 generally is specified in each CMM section for the rework of wing components (e.g., flap tracks, flap carriages). For repair of high-strength, 300M steel parts on DC-10 and MD-11 airplanes, use CMM 20-11-02; for DC-9, MD-80, MD-90, and 717 airplanes, use CMMs 20-10-18 and 20-10-06.
热处理强度在180 ksi以上的高强度合金钢部件的翻修应当遵循部件维护手册(CMM)32-00-05、32-00-06和32-00-07的规定。手册上直接适用于起落架部件的内容同样适用于所有高强度合金钢部件的大修。标准大修实施手册(SOPM)20-10-01的内容通常在每个CMM的相关章节中的大翼部件(襟翼滑轨和襟翼滑架)的翻修部分都有具体的描述。DC-10和MD-11飞机上高强度钢300M部件的修理使用CMM 20-11-02,DC-9、MD-80和MD-90,717飞机使用CMM20-10-18和20-10-06。
In addition, airline personnel need to understand the importance of maintaining component finishes while in service (in situ, or on the airplane). This includes repairing damaged finishes to prevent corrosion and ensuring that solvents and materials that come in contact with the finishes do not result in premature degradation and unscheduled component removal.
此外,维修人员必须了解维修中(在内场或在翼)部件涂层的重要性。包括受损修理部分涂层,预防腐蚀,确保和涂层部分接触的溶剂和材料不会造成材料提前失效以及非计划性的部件更换。
Boeing documentation describes the methods for detecting base metal damage while in service and during overhaul. Common techniques include detailed visual inspections and other nondestructive inspection methods, such as magnetic particle inspection (MPI) and fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI). (See SOPMs 20- 20-01 and 20-20-02.) Ultrasonic or eddy current inspections also may be useful for in situ inspections.
波音的相关手册描述了维护和大修时探测本体金属损伤的方法。包括详细的目视检查和其它无损探伤方法,诸如磁粉检查(MPI)和荧光渗透检查(FPI)。(见SOPM20-20-02和20-20-02。)超声波或涡流探伤方法还适用于内场检查。
Boeing also is developing supplemental, specialized techniques, such as the Barkhausen inspection, to detect metal heat damage under chrome plating or other protective finishes. This technique can be used successfully to screen components with suspect damage. For example, if an axle fractures as a result of chrome-grinding heat damage during manufacture or overhaul, the Barkhausen inspection allows other suspect components to be screened without first performing a chrome strip and temper etch (e.g., nital etch) inspection on all suspect axles.
波音正在研发专用技术,诸如巴克豪森检查方法,用于检查镀铬层或其它保护涂层下的本体金属热损伤。该技术可以用于排除受怀疑的部件。例如,如果在制造或大修过程中由于铬合金热磨伤而造成轴断裂,用巴克豪森检查方法就可以排除受怀疑的部件,免去了对所有受怀疑的轴进行去除镀铬层和回火刻蚀检查的工作。
3. GUIDELINES FOR REWORKING HIGH-STRENGTH ALLOY STEEL COMPONENTS 高强度不锈钢合金部件翻修指南
STRESS CONCENTRATIONS应力集中
During component design, eliminating or minimizing areas of stress concentrations is a key objective. Special attention is given to protective finish runouts adjacent to stress concentration details. In addition, all stress concentration details are subject to extensive testing and/or analysis to ensure that no detrimental effects are introduced into a part. Any rework or repair must not increase stress concentrations that degrade component durability.
杜绝应力集中是部件设计的主要目标,应当特别注意过渡到应力集中的各个点附近的表面保护涂层。此外,应当对所有应力集中的点进行广泛的测试和分析,确保不会对部件产生有害影响。任何翻修或修理都不得增加应力集中而降低部件的耐久性。
When a surface is machined or ground to remove damage, the reworked area should be shot-peened with proper overlap onto the existing shot-peened surface. During overhaul, personnel must observe the plating runouts specified in the CMM sections and SOPMs 20-10-01 and 20-42-03.
为去除损伤而对表面进行切削和打磨的时候,对翻修区域的喷丸应当和原有的喷丸面适当交叠。大修时,应当遵守CMM和SOPM20-10-01和20-42-03对涂层过渡段的规定。
For example, when a coating such as chrome or nickel plating is applied to surfaces to prevent wear or corrosion, the coating must exhibit proper runouts that terminate before the tangent of fillet radii, edges, or other shape changes. Boeing SOPM guidelines should be followed for the rework of any component and for all types of plating or coating.
例如,为了防止损伤或腐蚀,对部件表面进行电镀诸如镀铬或镀镍时,镀层与内倒角、边沿或其它轮廓相切之前必须有一定的过渡段。应当遵循波音SOPM手册对部件进行翻修或电镀或涂漆。
Rework or overhaul of components should not introduce stress concentrations, or otherwise increase stresses, which can reduce the service life of a component below that of the original design configuration.
对部件的翻修或大修不应出现应力集中或增加应力,否则会降低部件的使用寿命而不能满足设计要求。
Stress concentrations can lead to initiation of cracking by fatigue, stress corrosion, or hydrogen-assisted stress corrosion. These cracks may result in a fracture or scrap of a component when found while in service or during overhaul. The following are examples of stress concentrations that can lead to cracking.
应力集中可能会导致疲劳、应力腐蚀或氢基应力腐蚀而产生裂纹。在维护或大修过程中,裂纹可能会导致部件在铸造过程中断裂或粉碎。以下是应力集中导致裂纹的实例:
Transitions or radii that are sharper than original design . When removing damaged material from part surfaces during rework, the new transitions or radii should not cause an unacceptable increase in stress concentration at the location or degrade the original design features. When locally machining out corrosion or damage during overhaul, a gradual transition into the reworked depression is necessary.

使用道具 举报

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

发表于 2009-12-9 16:54:56 |显示全部楼层
比初始设计更尖锐的过渡段或倒角。在翻修过程中从部件上去除受损材料时,新的过渡段或倒角部分不应增加无法接受的应力集中或降低原始设计性能。如果大修时要局部切削腐蚀或损伤部分,必须使翻修凹陷表面与原表面缓和过渡。
The intent is to remove the least amount of material possible while ensuring that all discrepant material is removed and the original design strength and durability are maintained. There are few options to restore these machined depressions to meet interface requirements. One type of rework or overhaul, sulfamate-nickel plating, is common on shock strut cylinder diameters and is used to repair lug faces to design dimensions as follows/P> 去除少量材料的同时,应尽量确保所去除的是所有有差异的材料,并尽量保持初始设计的强度和耐久性。恢复切削凹陷,满足交接面的要求有几种选择方法。有一种翻修或大修方法 – 磺胺基镍镀层,在减振支柱内筒上的应用比较普遍,也用于修理接耳表面:
Local blends on inner cylinder outer diameter surfaces and outer cylinder inner diameter surfaces often are filled with sulfamate-nickel plating to restore them to dimensions that are suitable for subsequent chrome plate application.内筒外径表面与外筒内径表面通常用磺胺基镍镀层来融合填充,以恢复径向尺寸,也适用于后面的镀铬。 Spot facing on lugs is controlled to have a generous radius at the transition to the adjacent surface and usually is kept at the minimum depth necessary to clean up the damaged surface. Spot face depressions typically are not filled with plating to restore the dimension but instead are finished in the same manner as the original design. Spot face transition radii need to be such that they can be shot-peened to the requirements of the adjacent surfaces. 应当控制接耳打磨后表面与相邻表面之间的过渡段是平缓的圆弧,尽量使打磨深度最小同时能清除掉受损的表面。打磨后的凹陷一般不用镀层来恢复尺寸而是按照初始设计用涂层来替代。打磨后表面的过渡圆弧必须可以承受喷丸处理以满足相邻表面的要求。 When the entire face of a lug must be machined to remove damage, the new lug transition radii should be shaped and positioned in accordance with CMM requirements. Surface transitions into the lug hole and at the lug edges must have design transitions that will allow restoration of shot-peening on all reworked areas and permit complete seating of bushings without contacting hole edges. 如果必须对接耳的整个表面进行切削才能去除损伤,新的接耳过渡圆角必须按照CMM的要求进行刨削和定中。过渡到接耳孔和接耳的表面边沿必须满足设计的过渡要求,以便对所有的翻修区域进行恢复性喷丸,并使衬套到位,而不会接触到孔的边沿。 Abrupt changes in sections, holes, and sharp-cornered keyways should be avoided. Proper design will reflect generous fillets, gradual changes of shape, and the use of relief grooves in areas of high stress. Finer surface finishes also may be needed to eliminate unnecessary stress concentrations, especially in areas of machined radii or undercuts. Overhaul should reflect the same careful, detailed review that occurred during the original design.
尽量避免截面的突然改变、孔和大尖角的键槽。设计中应当考虑平缓的内倒角、逐渐改变形状并在高应力区使用缓冲槽。起光滑表面作用的涂层还应当避免不必要的应力集中,尤其是机加工倒角或内切槽。大修时也应当注意这些事项。
Plating conditions and runout controls that are not in accordance with design standards. During overhaul, many landing gear components are completely stripped to replace nickel and chrome plating. In most instances, these repairs involve rework of the base metal. The new plating deposits frequently are thicker than the original design configuration and deterioration of the plating adhesion. Through-thickness cracking also can lead to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking of the base metal beneath the plating.
不符合设计标准的镀层和过渡段控制。大修过程中,许多起落架部件的镀镍层和镀铬层完全被剥离。多数情况下,都要翻修本体金属。新的镀层通常比初始设计的构型厚并使镀层的粘性减弱。还会形成穿透型裂纹,造成镀层下本体金属的疲劳或应力腐蚀裂纹。
Visual evidence of chicken-wire cracking after chrome grinding indicates poor chrome quality and also may indicate the possibility of base metal heat damage. Chicken-wire cracking noted in SOPM 20-10-04 indicates that the chrome should be stripped and replated.
打磨掉镀铬层后会发现鸡皮裂纹,表明镀铬质量不好,也表明本体金属可能出现热损伤。SOPM 20-10-04中的鸡皮裂纹表明应当剥离镀铬层并重新电镀。
If the plating runouts are blended or machined to remove the abrupt plating edge, the techniques must be well controlled to avoid damaging the adjacent base metal. Improper blending can remove the required shot-peened layer or create undercuts or grooves at the edge of the plating that can cause cracking in service.
如果必须将镀层上过渡段融合或切削掉来去除镀层的凸变边沿,工作人员必须严格控制,防止损伤临近的本体金属。融合不当可能会改变要求的喷丸层或在镀层边沿产生内切槽或凹槽,可能会造成使用过程中产生裂纹。
Several in-service fractures have been attributed to improper plating technique, poor-quality plating, improper runout conditions, and base metal damage caused by poor blending or machining control.
使用中发生断裂主要是因为电镀不当、电镀质量低下、过渡段不当以及由于融合或加工控制不当使本体金属而受损。
Proper use of special plating techniques, such as conforming anodes and robbers, can control plating thicknesses and runouts. This can reduce the possibility of chrome chicken-wire cracking and poor runout details.
采用适当的电镀技术诸如阳极化和附加阴极技术可以控制镀层的厚度和范围。有助于减少鸡皮裂纹的可能性并减少过渡段不细腻的可能性。
Plating into a transition (radius transition or undercut) will create a stress concentration that can cause crack initiation. For example, figure 1 shows an outer cylinder clevis plated into the lug transition. In service, fatigue cracking initiated at the plating runout led to lug fracture.
如果过渡段被电镀(倒角和内切槽)将会产生应力集中,造成裂纹。例如,图1示意了外筒U形夹的镀层延伸到了接耳的过渡段。在实际使用中,在镀层的过渡段发生的疲劳裂纹会导致接耳断裂。
Corrosion and pitting. Corrosion pits are stress concentrations. As the pit forms, it damages the shot-peened layer locally at the surface. The pit then grows through the compressive layer, and the change in residual stress state and the pit geometry initiate stress corrosion cracking. This type of cracking most often occurs on surfaces that are both prone to corrosion and exposed to sustained tensile stresses while in service, such as the lower surface of landing gear trucks, axles, and the surfaces of forward and aft trunnions.
腐蚀和斑点。腐蚀斑点属于应力集中。斑点形成后,它会损伤局部表面的喷丸层。随后斑点穿过压缩层继续扩展,剩余应力发生改变,斑点最终导致应力腐蚀裂纹。这种裂纹大多出现在表面,主要是在使用中受腐蚀和持续张力的共同作用,如起落架支柱的下表面、轴和前后枢轴的表面。

使用道具 举报

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

发表于 2009-12-9 16:55:16 |显示全部楼层
Corrosion pitting also can lead to fatigue crack initiation depending on the component, the location of pitting, and cyclic loading conditions. In these cases, the cracks can propagate to the critical length and result in ductile fracture of the component. The degree of cracking tolerated before fracture varies by component, crack location, and component loading conditions.
腐蚀斑点还会因不同的部件、斑点的位置和循环载荷状况,导致一些不同的疲劳裂纹。出现这种情况后,裂纹的长度会扩展,造成部件延展断裂。断裂之前承受裂纹的能力依部件、裂纹位置和部件承载情况的不同而论。
To prevent excessive corrosion, thorough visual inspections should be performed on a regular basis to evaluate the condition of the protective finishes. Damage should be repaired soon after it is found. Touching up damage to accessible enamel and primer in a timely manner can prevent the formation of corrosion pits and reduce the need for excessive rework during overhaul. Rework that requires low-hydrogen embrittlement (LHE) cadmium stylus plating should be performed when the component is not loaded.
为预防严重的腐蚀,应当做定期目视检查,分析保护层的状况,发现损伤后应立即修理。用时效方法可接近的珐琅和底漆进行接触性损伤检查有助于预防腐蚀斑点的形成并减少大修工作量。翻修要求的低氢脆(LHE)镀镉应当在部件不在翼的状态下进行。
When the component is removed for overhaul, all evidence of corrosion must be removed and finishes restored to design requirements or better. The sequence of rework operations is provided in CMMs 32-00-05, 32-00-06, and 32-00-07.
如果不拆下部件进行大修,必须去除所有可见的腐蚀,并按设计要求或更高的要求恢复涂层。参见CMM32-00-05、32-00-06和 32-00-07。
Landing gear truck fractures have occurred in service because of corrosion on the inner diameter of the main gear truck beam (figs. 2 and 3). These fractures may be caused by a combination of degraded protective finishes on the truck inner diameter, poor drainage, and contact with the corrosive chemicals in washing solutions or deicing compounds. Truck fractures most often occur at maximum ground loads such as after fueling or during preflight taxi.
在实际使用中,起落架支柱的断裂主要是由于主起落架支柱横梁(图2和3)内筒的腐蚀造成的。这类断裂可能是由于支柱内筒保护涂层失效、排放不当或与有腐蚀性的化学剂诸如清洁剂或除冰剂相接触造成的。支柱的断裂大多出现在最大载荷的时候诸如飞机后部加油时或在起飞前的滑跑过程中。
Figures 4 and 5 show a drag brace from which corrosion was not removed completely during overhaul. The part was subsequently shot-peened, and new protective finishes were applied over the residual active corrosion. This resulted in crack initiation and propagation while in service and the eventual fracture of the component.
图4和图5示意了大修过程中阻力撑杆上的腐蚀没有完全去除的情况,并对部件进行了喷丸处理,还在剩余的腐蚀上涂了保护涂层。造成裂纹和裂纹扩展,最终导致部件断裂。
Mechanical damage. Stress concentrations can be created by mechanical damage that compromises the protective finishes and alters the compressive shot-peen layer. This damage often is caused by improper maintenance practices such as jacking adjacent to a jack pad or an inadvertent impact with tools or ground-support equipment (e.g., tow vehicles). Although high-strength alloy steels are hard and resist dents, scratches, and nicks, stress concentrations caused by mechanical damage can dramatically reduce the service life of a component.
机加工损伤。机加工损伤对保护涂层的破坏和对喷丸压缩层的改变会造成应力腐蚀。这类损伤大多是由于维护不当诸如在顶升垫以外的位置顶升飞机或使用工具或地面设备(拖车)撞击飞机造成的。虽然高强度合金钢的硬度很高,不容易产生斑点、抓痕或刻痕,但是,机加工损伤造成的应力集中会严重降低部件的使用寿命。
High-strength alloy steel components also can be damaged by mishandling during shop rework (e.g., dropping, impact) , and in some circumstances, by foreign object debris. Possible mechanical damage to a high-strength alloy steel component should be evaluated by the operator and repaired as needed.
在翻修中操作不当(跌落、撞击)也会损伤高强度合金钢部件,有时也会受到外来杂质的损伤。工作者应当注意机加工对高强度合金钢可能造成的损伤,并按需修理。
If the damage is local and widespread deformations are not evident, repair may be similar to that required for corrosion and pitting. All deformed material must be removed before refinishing; deformed high-strength steel alloy components must not be straightened.
如果出现局部损伤并发生无法避免的扩散性变形,应当按照腐蚀和斑点类似的修理方法进行修理。在涂层之前,所有变形的材料必须去除,不得自行改直变形后的高强度合金钢部件继续使用。
OVERHEATING COMPONENTS 过热部件
Overheating of components can change the original steel temper and mechanical properties of the affected area.
部件过热会改变受影响区域内钢材的初始韧度和机械性能。
Overheating damage can be caused by过热损伤可能由于以下原因引起
Frictional heating while in service.维护中摩擦生热 Abusive machining and grinding operations during manufacture or overhaul.制造和大修中切削和打磨不当 Exposure to high temperatures during overhaul
bake cycles.大修烘烤时温度过高 Unusual conditions such as refused takeoffs and
local fires.中断起飞和火灾等突发情况 The degree to which the mechanical properties are changed depends on the temperature and duration of exposure.
机械性能的改变程度取决于时效的温度和时间。
Overheating can result in overtempered martensite (OTM) or untempered martensite (UTM) formations in the base metal. Both conditions can be detected by a temper etch (i.e., nital etch) inspection of the base metal. UTM indications show white during temper etch inspections and often are found within patches of OTM, which show dark gray to black during temper etch inspection. SOPM 20-10-02 provides details about the inspection process and interpretation of the results.

使用道具 举报

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

发表于 2009-12-9 16:55:28 |显示全部楼层
过热会造成在本体金属中形成过回火马氏体(OTM)或者欠回火马氏体(UTM)。两种情况在对本体金属的回火蚀刻检查中会发现。在回火蚀刻检查中,UTM往往表现出白色,并且是在OTM的斑点之内,而OTM则表现出深灰色或黑色。SOPM 20-10-02提供了详细的检查程序和结果分析。
Heat damage generally is removed by carefully machining the base metal. Afterward, another temper etch inspection is done to ensure that the machining did not create more heat damage.
去除热损伤的方法是仔细切削本体金属,然后,再做一次回火刻蚀检查,确保切削工作没有产生进一步的热损伤。
UTM formations may be accompanied by heat-induced cracking within these overheated areas that, if left in place, can propagate while in service. Figures 6 and 7 show service-induced heat damage on the inside diameter of a main gear outer cylinder. This component developed extensive frictional heat damage in the upper bearing contact area as a result of improper clamp-up. The heat damage led to cracking through the cylinder wall. Salvage was not possible.
UTM的形成可能是由于过热区内热损伤裂纹造成的,如果裂纹没有被及时处理,就会在实际使用过程中扩展。图6和7示意了主起落架外筒内径的热损伤情况。由于夹紧方式不当,造成该部件上部轴承的接触区域大面积摩擦热损。热损伤导致内筒壁穿透性裂纹而无法弥补。
Less severe friction-induced heat damage can be found on inner cylinders during component overhaul. This damage, which occurs on a more frequent basis, is caused by vertical motion against the lower bearing surfaces. This damage generally is shallow and can be removed by machining. After overhaul operations are completed, the component is returned to service in accordance with CMM requirements.
在部件大修过程中还会发现内筒上出现不常见的严重的摩擦热损伤。这类主要与使用频率有关的损伤是接触到下部轴承表面的垂直方向运动造成的,通常靠切削就能去除这类浅层损伤。大修后,该部件返回使用时应遵循CMM的要求。
When grinding chrome to finish dimensions, overheating the base metal can create UTM and OTM formations under the chrome. Figures 8 and 9 show a severe grinding burn on a main landing gear axle that resulted in a fracture. Similar grinding burns also have led to the fracture of flap carriage spindle journals (figs. 10 and 11).
恢复涂层设计尺寸而打磨部件的镀铬层时,本体金属的打磨过热会造成在镀铬层下形成UTM和OTM。图8和9示意了主起落架轴承受严重打磨烧蚀而断裂的情况。类似的打磨烧蚀还会造成襟翼滑架轴颈断裂。(图10和11)。
Any visible evidence of chrome plate distress can indicate the likelihood of base metal heat damage. Figures 12 and 13 show a grinding burn that led to the fracture of a pivot pin. SOPM 20-10-04 and CMMs 32-00-05, 32-00-06, and 32-00-07 provide guidelines that indicate when chrome must be removed during overhaul.
镀铬层受损看起来像本体金属的热损伤。图12和13示意了打磨烧蚀导致的轴销断裂。SOPM 20-10-04 和 CMM32-00-0、32-00-06和32-00-07给出了大修时去除镀铬层的指南。
Some heat damage is so severe that the heat-treat condition of material is altered in adjacent areas. This widespread reduction in metal hardness Rockwell-C hardness readings) may indicate that the component cannot be salvaged. Axle heat damage caused by a wheel bearing fracture may lead to such a condition.
有些热损伤相当严重,以至于临近区域材料的热处理状态被改变。材料硬度的大幅度降低表示部件已无法补救。轮轴承断裂造成轴的热损伤可能会导致这类情况。
Shop procedures such as magnetic particle inspection and LHE cadmium stylus plating can cause arc burns if appropriate precautions are not maintained during processing. Figures 14 and 15 show a fracture resulting from an arc burn that developed during LHE stylus cadmium plating. (Note: In this article, cadmium plating means cadmiumtitanium or LHE cadmium plating.)
大修检查,诸如磁粉检查和LHE镀镉检查,如果没有遵循一定的注意事项,可能会造成电弧烧蚀。图14和15示意了LHE镀镉检查过程中产生电弧烧蚀造成断裂的情况。(注意:本文中镀镉表示镉钛镀层或LHE镀镉。)
Overheating will not alter the heat-treat conditions of the base metal if the temperatures are below the original tempering temperature. However, the component still may require special consideration (or rework) because如果温度低于初始回火温度,过热不会改变本体金属的热处理状况。然而,部件仍然要求特殊的护理,这是由于:
Shot-peening may be compromised (heated above 400°F).喷丸损伤(加热到400°F以上) Cadmium embrittlement may occur (heated above 450°F with cadmium plating present).出现镉脆(带镉镀层加热到450°F以上) Chromate may be degraded (heated above 400°F).镀铬转换涂层可能受损(加热到400°F以上) Organic coatings or sealants may crack or become brittle or discolored (wide range of temperatures). 组织涂层或密封层裂纹或脆化或退色(温度变化大) These situations often occur when components are这些情况通常出现在部件
Inadvertently overheated in an oven.在烤箱内的温度过高。 Exposed to elevated temperatures with some finishes intact or bushings installed.暴露到恶劣的温度条件下,接触到涂层或装有衬套。 Exposed to fire.暴露到火焰中。 Residual cadmium often is left on a part during overhaul processing to protect it from corrosion. The part is then stripped of all cadmium and replated near the end of overhaul. Parts with residual cadmium should not be heated over during overhaul.
在大修过程中往往会保留一部分镀镉层来预防腐蚀,但在大修结束之前会剥离所有的镀铬层并重新电镀。带保留镀镉层的部件的加热温度不得超过400°F
Bushings should not remain installed during overhaul unless retained by specific CMM requirements. Bushings must be removed to permit a thorough inspection of the base metal and to avoid bushing-to-bore interface degradation during bake cycles. Design finishes are restored and new bushings with design interferences and dimensions are installed because bushing wear limits do not apply during overhaul.

使用道具 举报

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

发表于 2009-12-9 16:55:46 |显示全部楼层
除非CMM中有特殊的要求,衬套不得在原位大修。必须拆下衬套,对本体金属进行彻底的检查,防止在烘焙过程中衬套与孔之间的表面失效。如果大修过程中衬套磨损极限不复合要求,应将衬套恢复到设计涂层要求和的尺寸配合要求后进行安装。
Wheel bearing fractures or high-energy refused takeoffs often result in high local heat on an axle. Discoloration of the enamel, primer, or chrome or evidence of cadmium damage on the inner diameter of the axle may require the heat-damaged component be removed from service.
机轮轴承的断裂和高能中断起飞通常都是由于轴上产生了局部的高热量。如果轴的内径上的珐琅、底漆、镀铬层退色或镀镉层损伤,应当在部件投入使用之前拆下热损部件。
Overheating affects components to various degrees; in some instances, only finish durability is degraded. This may result in a shorter than planned time between component overhauls.
过热对部件的影响花样繁多,有时,仅仅是降低涂层的耐久性,这会导致部件大修间隔时间缩短。
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT氢脆化
Hydrogen embrittlement occurs when a high-strength alloy steel component absorbs hydrogen, which is not removed in a timely manner in accordance with the SOPM (e.g., embrittlement relief baking).
如果高强度合金钢在时效过程中没有遵循SOPM(排氢烘焙)的要求而吸收了氢元素就会发生氢脆。
When hydrogen remains in a component for an extended time, the microstructural damage that develops significantly degrades the mechanical properties of the steel. The infused hydrogen migrates to areas of high stress (e.g., material internal stresses) and creates local microstructural damage. When the component is installed on an airplane, this internal damage can lead to crack initiation and propagation, resulting in component fracture.
如果氢元素残留在部件中达到一定的时间,微结构损伤就会使钢材的机械性能严重衰减。如果氢元素转移到高应力区域(材料的内部应力)就会导致微结构损伤。如果把这样的部件安装在飞机上,其内部损伤会导致裂纹并扩展,最终造成部件断裂。
The elevated temperatures reached during hydrogen embrittlement relief baking, which is performed directly after stripping or plating operations during overhaul, effectively remove hydrogen generated during these operations. Processes that must be followed with relief baking include chrome, sulfamate-nickel, and LHE cadmium plating; stripping operations; and many nital etch inspections. After hydrogen-generating operations, relief bake delay time limits must be observed to ensure complete hydrogen removal. In general, the best practice is to initiate baking as soon as possible following a plating operation.
大修时,在剥离或电镀后进行的排氢烘焙的时间长度要严格控制,就能有效排出氢元素。必须严格遵循排氢程序包括镀铬、磺胺基镍镀层和LHE镀镉检查、剥离和各阶段的回火刻蚀检查程序。在产生氢元素的步骤结束后,必须遵守排氢烘焙的时间限制,确保氢元素完全排放掉。总而言之,最佳的选择就是在电镀后尽快进行烘焙。
The delay time between plating completion and baking start typically is observed. However, when thick plating deposits or multiple plating operations are performed on a single component, the total time between initial plating start and baking start is a key factor when determining the maximum delay time allowed. For example, embrittlement relief baking must begin 10 hr after sulfamate-nickel plating is completed or within 24 hr after plating begins, whichever results in the shortest overall bake delay.
电镀后和烘焙开始之间的间隔时间一定要严格控制。然而,有时一个部件上会有很厚镀层和多重电镀,那么确定允许的最大间隔时,电镀开始的时间和烘焙开始的时间的间隔是关键因素。例如,氢脆排放烘焙必须在磺胺基镍电镀完成之后10小时内和电镀开始后24小时内进行,就会使烘焙时间间隔最短。
Figure 16 shows a flap track that cracked because of hydrogen embrittlement 149 flight cycles after overhaul. Figure 17 is a scanning electron microscope view of a typical hydrogen embrittlement crack where separation occurs along grain boundaries. Typically, hydrogen embrittlement cracks propagate rapidly once loads are applied to the part. In some cases, internal residual stresses are sufficiently high to cause cracking even before the part is installed.
图16示意了襟翼滑轨大修后149个飞行循环内由于氢脆造成裂纹的实例。图17示意了用电子显微镜扫描出的沿晶粒边界产生的氢脆裂纹。通常,部件承载后,氢脆裂纹扩展迅速。有时,内部剩余应力如果足够大,在部件装机之前就会产生裂纹。
CADMIUM EMBRITTLEMENT隔脆化
Overheating LHE cadmium or cadmium-titanium plated components causes embrittlement of high-strength alloy steel by cadmium, resulting in cadmium diffusion into the steel grain boundaries. Solid-metal embrittlement by cadmium can occur at temperatures below the cadmium melting point. These effects on the base metal can begin to occur at 450°F, whereas the cadmium melting point is generally 610°F. The microstructural anomalies resulting from cadmium embrittlement can lead to component fractures in service.
过热LHE镀镉和镀镉钛会造成高强度合金钢部件的镉脆化,导致镉元素转移到钢材料晶粒的边界。低于镉的融解点温度时会出现故态金属的镉脆化。450°F开始对本体金属有影响,而镉的融解点一般在610°F。隔脆化造成的微结构异常会导致部件在使用中断裂。
Determining whether cadmium has migrated into the grain boundaries of cadmium-plated, high-strength alloy steel components requires destructive testing of the components. If these components have been overheated, salvage may not be possible. However, if high-temperature exposure was short and discoloration of the enamel or primer was minimal, the component may be a candidate for salvage. Slight or no discoloration of the enamel or primer may indicate the cadmium plating was not heated to the extent that cadmium embrittlement would be suspected.
确定镉元素是否转移到晶粒边界的方法就是对高强度合金钢部件进行无损探伤。如果部件过热,就无法弥补。然而,如果高温时间不是很长而且珐琅或底漆的退色情况不严重,部件还是有望弥补的。珐琅或底漆轻微退色或没发生退色,表示镀镉层没有受热,可能没有出现镉脆情况。
IMPROPER FINISHING涂层不当
Improper application of protective finishes during manufacture or overhaul can lead to finish degradation, corrosion, and corrosion pitting, which can result in component fracture while in service (figs. 2 and 3.) Some cleaners and chemicals may accelerate finish degradation and lead to corrosion. Operators should ensure that cleaners and chemicals are tested before use in accordance with Boeing document D6 17487, Evaluation of Airplane Maintenance Materials. Testing to these requirements will determine whether a cleaner or chemical is detrimental to protective finishes or base metal. However, long-term exposure to the solution or material still may adversely affect finishes.
制造和大修过程中如果保护涂层的施用不当会导致涂层失效、腐蚀和腐蚀斑点,而造成部件在使用中断裂(图2和3)。一些清洁剂和化学剂也可能加速涂层的失效并导致腐蚀。工作者应确保在使用之前按照波音手册D6 17487 — 飞机维护材料的分析,对清洁剂和化学剂它们进行测试。用测试的结果来确定所使用的清洁剂或化学剂是否对保护涂层或本体金属有害。然而,涂层长期与溶剂或化学剂接触始终是有负面影响的。
Personnel must ensure that materials used for activities such as cleaning and deicing conform to Boeing document D6-17487 requirements and will accomplish the intended task (verified by the material provider or operator). Refer to the Aircraft Maintenance Manual for materials specified for aircraft cleaning and deicing. The CMM specifies the materials for use in repair.
工作者必须确保活跃性的材料诸如清洁剂和除冰剂满足波音手册D6-17487的要求并完成适当的工作(由材料供应商或航空公司提供证明)。参考飞机维护手册中对飞机清洁剂和除冰剂材料的规定,CMM规定了维修中所使用的材料。
High-strength alloy steel components should be stripped completely during overhaul (including removal of bushings and bearings in all structural components). This allows a thorough inspection of the base metal (a primary component overhaul requirement) and ensures that all finishes, including the LHE cadmium plating and conversion coating, are restored to the original design requirements. This is addressed in an all-model Boeing service letter dated April 23, 2002, Overhaul of High Strength Steel Components–Cadmium Strip Required (e.g., 757-SL-20-036-A, 767-SL-20-038-A, 747-SL-20-062-A).
高强度合金钢部件应当在大修中完全剥离(包括所有结构部件的轴承和衬套),以便对本体金属进行全面的检查(最基本的部件大修要求)并确保所有的涂层包括LHE镀镉层和转换涂层恢复到了初始设计的要求。在波音2002年4月23日颁发的针对所有机型的服务信函 -高强度合金钢部件 -镀镉层剥离要求(757-SL-20-036-A、767-SL-20-038-A、和747-SL-20-062-A)中强调了这一点。
Restoration of the shot-peened layer during overhaul is important to ensure that the shot-peen compressive residual stresses are maintained or restored. Removing or damaging the shot-peened layer can reduce the protection that this compressive layer provides against fatigue and stress corrosion crack initiation. Discontinuous shot-peening can lead to crack initiation at the tensile surface stresses adjacent to edges of abrupt compressive layer runouts (no fadeout). All reworked surfaces must be shot-peened after removing material damaged by corrosion, heat, and deformation.
大修中喷丸层的恢复相当重要,确保喷丸压缩层的剩余应力大修或应力恢复。喷丸压缩层的改变或损坏会降低压缩层抵抗疲劳和应力腐蚀裂纹的保护性。受表面张力作用,不连续喷丸会导致在压缩层过渡段突变的边沿出现裂纹。所有的翻修表面在去除腐蚀、受热和变形材料后必须进行喷丸。
As a rule, if material removal exceeds 0.0015 in (or 10 percent of the Almen strip intensity), the surface should then be shot-peened to CMM requirements. Exceeding shot-peen requirements is better than leaving areas without shotpeening. All portions of a component that are to be shot-peened should first be completely stripped; no cadmium residue should remain on the surface.
如果材料的去除量超过0.0015 in(或Almen剥离密度的十分之一),应当按照CMM的要求对表面进行喷丸。过度喷丸要求要比不喷丸好一些。部件的所有喷丸部分应当首先完全剥离,表面不得残留镉。(拉尔夫·盖博 著/ 汕航岳瑞军 蒋维良 译

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册


航空域名|蓝天公司|Archiver|民航论坛 民航社区 ( 渝ICP备10008336号 )

GMT+8, 2020-1-25 00:46 , Processed in 0.062400 second(s), 10 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X2

© 2001-2011 MinHang.CC.

回顶部