民航论坛_民航社区_航空翻译_民航英语翻译_飞行翻译_Aviation English Translation

 找回密码
 注册
搜索
查看: 1317|回复: 0

ICAO Glossary Of Terms [复制链接]

Rank: 9Rank: 9Rank: 9

发表于 2011-10-19 21:01:24 |显示全部楼层
Abnormal Runway Contact& y- a. ^  q+ t- o& \% o
Any landing or takeoff involving abnormal runway or landing surface contact.  Abnormal runway contact is an occurrence category. , q3 b! B' M# i6 x
Abrupt ManeuverThe intentional abrupt maneuvering of the aircraft by the flight crew. Abrupt maneuver is an occurrence category.
) ?  S7 F  `( pAccident3 k, i! {4 z5 A5 o
An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which (a) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:  being in the aircraft; or direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft; or direct exposure to jet blast (except when the injuries are from natural causes, self‑inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers or crew); or (b)  the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which:  adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component (except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories; or for damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas, tires, brakes, fairings, small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin); or (c)  the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.  (ICAO Annex 13) ( w" C5 n6 [* U, w! h7 A
Aerodrome: p* K# T* L1 Z% G# v
Occurrences involving aerodrome design, service, or functionality issues. Aerodrome is an occurrence category.
  G6 v7 C7 Z: l: a0 k4 Z8 zAeronautical Product
; R4 K+ f2 q' h4 H5 q4 S) vAn aeronautical product is an aircraft, an aircraft engine, a propeller or appliance. & r# b0 K0 c# B1 _( [
Aeroplane
9 f* E! O$ b6 h) q9 LA power‑driven heavier‑than‑air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. (ICAO Annex I, Annex 6)
( n9 ~% h, _( qAircraft
, n& v; b4 V+ w/ A( ?An aircraft is any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth's surface. (ICAO Annex 1, Annex 6 Part I)
/ W8 |7 P' s' i# a3 m. V/ uAircraft Category; y8 T. t: d+ i
An aircraft category is the means by which aircraft are grouped based on how the aircraft is supported in flight. 2 z, ]/ S5 N4 O
Aircraft Make
$ c" Y( k4 \& O; U1 I9 eThe aircraft make is the name assigned to the aircraft by the manufacturer when each aircraft was produced. In most cases aircraft make is the organisation common name of the aircraft manufacturer. If the organisation that holds rights to an aircraft design permits another organisation to build that aircraft, in most cases the aircraft make would be the aircraft name assigned by the organisation that holds rights to an aircraft design. If an aircraft manufacturer is amateur construction, in most cases the aircraft make would be the name of the organisation responsible for design. 0 c6 t4 y0 Q8 Q
Aircraft Manufacturer2 t9 T; T& ?# }0 Z8 P
An Aircraft Manufacturer is the organization that has been recognized by its certifying authority as having manufactured the aircraft, at the time of completion. . `# ~% A! B) o4 m) R( y
Aircraft Master Model+ L- E, D# u* T1 l" k$ _& ]' a
An aircraft master model creates a grouping of similar aircraft models for analytical purposes and to identify aircraft models that share airworthiness properties. The master model is derived by combining the original aircraft make and original aircraft model.   a2 Y+ @* d2 K! b# z0 Z8 d
Aircraft Master Series
7 p3 W6 n3 \7 M9 x5 dAn aircraft master series creates a grouping of similar aircraft series for analytical purposes and to identify aircraft series that share airworthiness properties. A master series contains aircraft series from within one aircraft model.
  f3 \" J$ S" v1 s+ N& F" AAircraft Model
& D0 i. p5 P; M7 C3 N$ V3 ]An aircraft model is an aircraft manufacturer's designation for an aircraft grouping with similar design or style of structure.   r2 Q3 c: ^3 t# T& K5 b1 O+ u
Aircraft Popular Name: }4 x% M/ I( A# K. V, s8 I% H' c4 M
Aircraft popular name is the name used by the aircraft manufacturer to market or otherwise distinguish a particular aircraft model and/or series or the name used by a national military or armed forces to distinguish a particular aircraft model and/or series. : K# B0 W+ o; [9 ~5 k( R
Aircraft Series
* K" V, D; c. GAn aircraft series is an aircraft manufacturer's designation to identify differences within an aircraft model grouping.
0 z9 T# |& ~8 KAircraft Sub Category
$ B) ^6 @! ~$ u% e! O7 D4 d* dAn aircraft sub category is the means by which an aircraft category is subdivided based on similar characteristics of propulsion.
0 P7 J6 y2 I# Z. J- k) NAirplane( G; _' U5 ~+ }. H) J& d0 Z$ e  @
Airplane denotes a fixed wing aircraft that contains at least one engine and whose primary function is sustained powered flight. Airplane is an aircraft sub category.
: m8 |" j( x3 rAirprox/TCAS Alert/Loss of Separation/Near Midair Collisions/Midair Collisions) z3 `) t& _  F" s' x' j
Airprox, TCAS alerts, loss of separation as well as near collisions or collisions between aircraft in flight. Airprox/TCAS Alert/Loss of Separation/Near Midair Collisions/Midair Collisions collision is an occurrence category. 9 b1 U* J& p/ y6 P/ G  x0 M$ M
Airship
8 @& H" Q4 l- K: WAirship denotes a power‑driven lighter‑than‑air aircraft. Airship is an aircraft sub category.
1 Z( m1 L. |( \, [+ X* @Amateur Construction
& Y$ X: a; C& ~# V: ]9 M( TAn aircraft assembled and/or constructed by individual(s) or a group for education, recreation, or as identified by the certifying authority. The primary business of the individual(s) or group cannot be aircraft manufacturing. 7 [. ~0 H  ?; O, e( p
Approach# Y& N2 w3 e9 L9 g  |
IFR: From the IAF to the beginning of the landing flare.  VFR: From the point of VFR pattern entry, or 1000 feet above the runway elevation, to the beginning of the landing flare.  Approach is a phase of flight. $ h; v3 w  ^5 P" b5 S6 _- g
ATM/CNS
: ]$ {% r% u% ~Occurrences involving ATM or CNS service issues.  ATM/CNS is an occurrence category. 5 R: T7 l1 s) G8 Q  _6 r5 _
Balloon
& ^! D) A6 k1 i3 vBalloon denotes a non‑power‑driven lighter‑than‑air aircraft. (ICAO Annex 1)  Balloon is an aircraft sub category.
# @. ^4 b& |% P! `/ tBegin Date- ~9 H) w7 B1 r) ~6 G' ?
The begin date is the date a specific valid value started in use. ( W! ]* x% L7 K- T% K0 ]$ a
Cabin Safety Events
' \  n5 X. t! g5 R9 Q+ rMiscellaneous occurrences in the passenger cabin of transport category aircraft.  Cabin safety events are an occurrence category.
$ }& u# J# Y+ c7 k  W# W# RChange of Cruise Level, f* Z! {) \# k8 q: g' L" l0 J3 k6 D  f
Any climb or descent during cruise after the initial climb to cruise, but before descent to the destination.  Change of cruise level is a sub‑phase of the en route phase of flight. ; [; E6 n$ Y" t1 K: w% C1 s1 h3 g
Circuit Pattern – Base (VFR)) Q% L- ^5 C( a( s$ X9 C
From start of turn at end of downwind leg until the start of the turn for final. Circuit pattern – base VFR is a sub‑phase of the approach phase of flight. / C7 v+ n" i% {& W
Circuit Pattern – Crosswind (VFR)
5 z. J% s7 I5 E6 U: wA flight path of the VFR traffic pattern, which is perpendicular to the landing runway, crosses the departure end of the runway, and connects with the downwind leg. Circuit pattern – crosswind VFR is a sub‑phase of the approach phase of flight. & u4 i# g- W2 f. }, a# g4 e
Circuit Pattern – Downwind (VFR)
9 F- B" W8 X7 D- g0 ~9 E$ p! z* DA flight path (normally 1,000 feet above the runway) which commences abeam the departure end of the runway and runs parallel to the runway in the direction opposite to landing, and terminates upon initiating the turn to base leg.  Circuit pattern – downwind VFR is a sub‑phase of the approach phase of flight. , H  `, F% H! ~- d8 R  j
Circuit Pattern ‑ Final (VFR)2 S/ D& r+ b# U4 j3 x& |) H
From the start of the turn to intercept the extended runway centerline, normally at the end of base leg, to the beginning of the landing flare.  Includes VFR straight‑in approaches. Circuit pattern ‑ final VFR is a sub‑phase of the approach phase of flight. $ i! o1 D/ s3 a! E; D+ F
Climb to Cruise
3 V' H8 a+ ]9 u( yIFR: From completion of Initial Climb to arrival at initial assigned cruise altitude.  VFR: From completion of Initial Climb to initial cruise altitude.  Climb to cruise is a sub‑phase of the en route phase of flight.
6 F& t# e: W3 }2 U6 `! |$ RControlled Flight into or Toward Terrain
# |+ @8 q( D& a0 r9 EIn flight collision or near collision with terrain, water, or obstacle without indication of loss of control.  Controlled flight into or toward terrain is an occurrence category.
, J+ e( t6 p* n3 UCountry
2 r* q6 p: H( H1 w/ ]The country is the official name of a country or sovereignty. ) r7 N  G3 Z9 g% i
Country of Certifying Authority
$ Y# ~0 `* z6 {7 D$ j/ SThe country of certifying authority is the offcial name of a country or sovereignty; or regional association of two or more countries that issues type certificates.
& N/ u, R+ W6 \1 J% qCruise
4 k8 M( ^& p8 S$ A; j( p4 _$ hAny level flight segment after arrival at initial cruise altitude until the start of descent to the destination.  Cruise is a sub‑phase of the en route phase of flight.
+ o, [. p0 j0 B8 mDescent
; t8 H! `; H) `IFR: Descent from cruise to either IAF or VFR pattern entry.  VFR: Descent from cruise to the VFR pattern entry or 1000 feet above the runway elevation, whichever comes first.  Descent is a sub‑phase of the en route phase of flight. / ~2 C0 q+ i3 [. t
Emergency Descent
1 @3 o- W" e# D  ^! j- q& L/ J1 hA controlled descent during any airborne phase in response to a perceived emergency situation.  Emergency descent is a phase of flight.   p* x' |! o3 T; i0 y6 h
En Route* ^2 }8 \0 G6 q+ B$ [& Z' m! ~
IFR: From completion of Initial Climb through cruise altitude and completion of controlled descent to the IAF.  VFR: From completion of Initial Climb through cruise and controlled descent to the VFR pattern altitude or 1000 feet above runway elevation, whichever comes first.  En route is a phase of flight. . ^& V4 Q0 `% I9 z
End Date/ Y' b7 u! M* N: L9 I" T  I* U
The end date is the date a specific valid value ceased to be in use.
' P# k& P, E5 v9 gEvacuation
8 T) n  u( D$ [1 ?* J" l4 ?Occurrence where either: (a) person(s) are injured during an evacuation; (b) an unnecessary evacuation was performed; (c) evacuation equipment failed to perform as required; or (d) the evacuation was a factor in the outcome. Evacuation is an occurrence category. - T5 N" X3 t. S' t4 \' n
Final Approach (IFR)% N1 @) ?8 n5 h4 a& _6 A7 P
From the FAF to the beginning of the landing flare. Final approach is a sub‑phase of the approach phase of flight. ' t, B: S/ h, }% n7 U- [3 n
Fire/Smoke (Non‑Impact)! n' D' v3 v9 d9 }! e, b9 M# x
Fire or smoke in or on the aircraft, in flight or on the ground, which is not the result of impact. Fire/Smoke (Non‑Impact) is an occurrence category.
3 [( j7 n7 h, @3 h3 b8 LFire/Smoke (Post‑Impact)
5 t6 z6 N) }3 o& @Fire/Smoke resulting from impact. Fire/Smoke (Post‑Impact) is an occurrence category. : U4 R- p4 ^+ Q3 h( r9 A
Fixed Wing
  ^' W- L2 ~0 v: y% J# xFixed wing denotes a heavier‑than‑air aircraft that is supported in all phases of flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. Fixed wing is an aircraft category. - M9 d$ n& r* d: U9 N9 s* [! e
Flare: d2 W7 X7 Z8 `2 |1 G
Transition from nose‑low to nose‑up attitude just before landing until touchdown. Flare is a sub‑phase of the landing phase of flight.
( V6 ?5 n3 I" g2 g/ Z1 v6 CFuel Related% P# b, m3 T) K# ~
One or more powerplants experienced reduced or no power output due to fuel exhaustion, fuel starvation/mismanagement, fuel contamination/wrong fuel, or carburetor and/or induction icing. Fuel related is an occurrence category.
9 f. q; J7 E2 y! OGlider1 v) a# r/ ?( a/ M6 K$ H
A non‑power‑driven heavier‑than‑air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. (ICAO Annex 1, Annex 7)
9 {( I$ z" r/ N- D. P& sGround Collision0 n3 v; y/ M. _. I
Collision while taxiing to or from a runway in use. Ground collision is an occurrence category.
* x" S  k$ \# @1 U8 k6 [0 L0 U8 c. AGround Handling
0 U( @5 M/ w8 i" Q& t' eOccurrences during (or as a result of) ground handling operations. Ground handling is an occurrence category.
! j+ J9 B0 \; h4 z+ X) ^( NGyroplane
- N% M  U6 H+ a3 I1) Heavier‑than‑air aircraft supported in flight by the reactions of the air on one or more rotors which rotate freely on substantially vertical axes. (ICAO Annex 1) 2) Gyroplane denotes a rotorcraft that primarily depends on rotors that rotate by action of the air. Gyroplane is an aircraft sub category. (CICTT) ( E" B1 x( i+ J  {
Helicopter& Q9 [" ?* b2 |5 U& r1 O3 k
Helicopter denotes a rotorcraft that primarily depends on engine‑driven rotors for motion. Helicopter is an aircraft sub category.
) _* c, P6 F* ~& |Holding
' F  L# \- c6 o5 d3 \& ^Execution of a predetermined maneuver (usually an oval race track pattern) which keeps the aircraft within a specified airspace while awaiting further clearance. Descent during holding is also covered in this sub‑phase. Descent is a sub‑phase of the en route phase of flight. , X9 K% F+ x; e  u' ?5 W
Hybrid Lift
7 Y3 z( A) T/ ?3 oHybrid lift denotes a heavier‑than‑air aircraft that is supported at vertical takeoff, vertical landing, and low speed flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its rotors or thrust and in horizontal flight by the dynamic reactions of air against its wings (for example, the tilt‑rotor aircraft). Hybrid Lift is an aircraft category. ( W* Z) b1 l2 v- e2 a1 Q7 J) C
ICAO Aircraft Type Designator; d9 v4 D3 ~# u( z
The ICAO Aircraft Type Designator is designed for use by air traffic service for identifying types of aircraft and are recorded in ICAO Document 8643, Aircraft Type Designators, for those aircraft types most commonly provided with air traffic service. 8 y8 |+ ?0 K. {1 C. n; L% f6 A
Icing0 m& W) ^% r( B$ a" k1 \
Accumulation of snow, ice, freezing rain, or frost on aircraft surfaces that adversely affects aircraft control or performance. Icing is an occurrence category.
3 s5 ]8 V# Y+ i. v! r# eIncident4 J+ d- V5 s# h& Y; i! }
An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation. (ICAO Annex 13)
. e+ D; N  T" i3 Q' PInitial Approach (IFR)
1 }* N; }7 P# Q$ d6 A) uFrom the IAF to the FAF. Initial approach is a sub‑phase of the approach phase of flight.
+ b* N3 i1 w7 |4 ?8 HInitial Climb/ F2 B& K2 e8 n2 n5 E" {
From the end of the Takeoff sub‑phase to the first prescribed power reduction, or until reaching 1000 feet above runway elevation or the VFR pattern, whichever comes first. Initial climb is a phase of flight.
+ l2 T% D% b4 P0 ^# VKit Producer
$ F0 W5 k3 s( Z+ ]( ?The organisation that produces kits for amateur construction.
  ?6 A+ M: k6 U7 D2 KLanding
! y: M$ w7 U; l* |: ZFrom the beginning of the landing flare until aircraft exits the landing runway, comes to a stop on the runway, or when power is applied for takeoff in the case of a touch‑and‑go landing. Landing is a phase of flight. 6 M; {( k" G2 @* U
Landing Gear 5 u7 }9 c- J8 b' V1 ~) T
Landing Gear is the system that supports aircraft maneuvering on land or water and supports the weight of the aircraft when it lands.
6 Z: I, ^9 _  XLanding Roll# _( m* `+ W$ M8 d  `3 _6 a
After touchdown until aircraft exits the landing runway or comes to a stop, whichever occurs first. Landing roll is a sub‑phase of the landing phase of flight. ! n0 ]* A( C4 v8 R- p
Lighter‑Than‑Air
- A. G+ G# h; l$ ]) h' ZLighter‑than‑air denotes an aircraft that can rise and remain suspended by using contained gas weighing less than the air that is displaced by the gas. Lighter‑than‑air is an aircraft category.
! n' V( ]+ v+ F! y7 VLoss of Control ‑ Ground
' L8 v, Z2 {1 x4 v6 gLoss of aircraft control while the aircraft is on the ground. Loss of control – ground is an occurrence category.
, w! p- l/ M; X9 n0 oLoss of Control – Inflight
1 n& ]8 _- W: n' HLoss of aircraft control while inflight. Loss of control – inflight is an occurrence category. 8 ~) K- R! h  U3 ?% Y% K
Low Altitude Operations% z! B* Y  C( @
Collision or near collision with obstacles/objects/terrain while intentionally operating near the surface (excludes takeoff or landing phases). Low altitude operations are an occurrence category. 9 u; [8 v1 R/ Z& c! R/ G4 r
Low Flying
5 ?; f) {5 q  q/ v% Y) xIntentional low‑altitude flight not connected with a landing or takeoff, usually in preparation for or during observation work, demonstration, photography work, aerial application, training, sight seeing, ostentatious display, or other similar activity. For rotorcraft, this also includes hovering (not associated with landing or takeoff) and handling external loads. Low flying is a sub‑phase of the maneuvering phase of flight. : m. Z- b7 R0 [# Q5 H
Maneuvering+ {; a- S' e9 w1 V  u1 |. J* x
Low altitude/aerobatic flight operations Maneuvering is a phase of flight. - B+ u1 ~: Z: s5 J# D
Missed Approach/Go‑Around
( B- P" D" z, M# o( x7 R7 WFrom the first application of power after the crew elects to execute a missed approach or go‑around until the aircraft re‑enters the sequence for a VFR pattern (go‑around) or until the aircraft reaches the IAF for another approach (IFR). Missed approach/Go‑around is a sub‑phase of the approach phase of flight.
2 M2 I8 H: k" X$ z' k4 I% n7 w  UNon‑owered Glider
2 j; x8 h7 L* j7 ~" p1 V+ xNon‑powered glider denotes a fixed wing aircraft that does not contain an engine and whose primary function is sustained non‑powered flight. Non‑powered glider is an aircraft sub category. + W& C0 k" n' O& e
Occurrence  v) T1 Y/ ]( d2 X( k
Occurrence is defined as accident or incident.
6 s+ c( Q& @' F6 h; ^( x" c; ~. ]Organisation
5 o. o9 J4 U' h8 K) m" rAn organisation is public or private entity and includes National Civil Aviation Authorities (NCAAs), aircraft manufacturers, engine manufacturers, maintenance facilities, and training facilities.
! d. y3 `' C4 k$ C2 P0 `* |/ l( P. X6 ^Organisation Acronym
% s& U* Z- K! x! |The organisation acronym consists of the first letters of the components of the organisation's full name. In most cases, the description of the organisation's legal form (for example, Limited, Sociedad Amonima, or die Gesellschaft mit beschraenkter Haftung) is excluded. Examples of acronyms are BHT for Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. and DHC for de Havilland of Canada.
' ~; \2 k5 f7 R$ bOrganisation Common Name
9 \6 x" e* M; Q3 t) A7 ~1 YThe organisation common name is the abbreviated or shortened name to which an organisation is referred. For example the Organisation Common Name for The Boeing Company is BOEING and the Organisation Common Name for Canadair Limited is CANADAIR.
1 L; v4 A, o1 ~) eOrganisation Full Name
' p/ ?0 {8 ~5 N/ ^% _7 B# F. zThe organisation full name is the entire official or legal name of the organisation. * {3 E1 ~* u8 e- i+ O  D
Organisation Role2 \$ `$ Y% ]$ F. m+ C+ c
An organisation role type distinguishes the function an organisation performs in regard to the aviation industry.
2 T; K4 G; u% |* n1 i( MOther
& v' k& V; `0 y4 t: X# x1.Aircraft category: Other denotes a unique configuration that is not specifically a fixed wing, rotorcraft, lighter‑than‑air, or hybrid lift.
8 C1 Y7 N, m# ^% i, G2.Occurrence category: Any occurrence not covered under another category.
/ [2 d9 f9 @+ j3 U/ rPhase of Flight3 p, U: c) d- x  B
Phase of flight refers to a period within a flight. A flight begins when any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and continues until such time as all such persons have disembarked. (ICAO Annex 13) + p, i* `4 I( u( A; T# n# ~9 c& ~
Post‑Impact( a  F5 L8 f1 L4 V4 [
Any of that portion of the flight which occurs after impact with a person, object, obstacle or terrain. Post‑impact is a phase of flight.
* `0 O0 K; t  v8 I1 i9 B4 r$ f6 EPowered Glider
' R! p4 x! i( g6 {Powered glider denotes a fixed wing aircraft that contains at least one engine and whose primary function is sustained non‑powered flight. Powered glider is an aircraft sub category.   T2 g: i: W* \
Pushback/Towing, ~  A6 K% [* z
Aircraft is moving in the gate, ramp, or parking area, assisted by a tow vehicle [tug]. Pushback/towing is a phase of flight. + X6 e7 l! g" R6 H0 M
Rejected Takeoff
4 v, z% J3 J: @5 s, x5 iDuring takeoff, from the point where the decision to abort has been taken until the aircraft begins to taxi from the runway. Rejected takeoff is a sub‑phase of the takeoff phase of flight. + C7 [3 H3 M, ]) W* p6 M
Rotorcraft
) S4 ^$ g4 M1 @& }2 d4 vRotorcraft denotes a heavier‑than‑air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its rotors on a substantially vertical axis. Rotorcraft is an aircraft category.
0 c2 h0 s& ^8 @5 `+ U7 t  M! ~1 GRunway Excursion# v" ?* {3 X  ~( D4 |- {! k* a5 Y
A veer off or overrun off the runway surface. Runway excursion is an occurrence category.
9 V# r/ k: t4 NRunway Incursion – Animal' H; A8 c$ B$ A8 c' H' }
Collision with, risk of collision, or evasive action taken by an aircraft to avoid an animal on a runway in use. Runway incursion – animal is an occurrence category.
" _) n3 \: E. L+ n! Q) |Runway Incursion – Vehicle, Aircraft or person
3 V+ p4 g" B3 G$ v9 y" [; gAny occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft. Runway incursion – vehicle, aircraft, or person is an occurrence category. 8 \8 V+ A- I3 M! o2 }
Security Related
1 l  M! \7 v, h9 X- w+ }Criminal/Security acts which result in accidents or incidents (per ICAO Annex 13). Security related is an occurrence category. * y' ?2 N% {3 S: p  O1 [
Standing # W& @8 t1 ^) E$ f1 z* D
Prior to pushback or taxi, or after arrival, at the gate, ramp, or parking area, while the aircraft is stationary. Standing is a phase of flight. " o' b; `: O4 [( t$ k* C, W' C  h$ A9 d
System/Component Failure or Malfunction (Non‑owerplant) ' K( Y5 Z1 U9 t2 _" A
Failure or malfunction of an aircraft system or component ‑ other than the powerplant. System/component failure or malfunction (non‑powerplant) is an occurrence category.
1 K8 g' l- ^6 r6 a# HSystem/Component Failure or Malfunction (Powerplant) 8 c8 \* i$ i; z% g% ?
Failure or malfunction of an aircraft system or component ‑ related to the powerplant. System/component failure or malfunction (powerplant) is an occurrence category.   ?6 Y  h1 s$ Z
Takeoff& f" S( g; u; g+ |* d+ t* e/ g
1) Phase of flight: From the application of takeoff power, through rotation and to an altitude of 35 feet above runway elevation. 2) Sub‑phase of the takeoff phase of flight: From the application of takeoff power, through rotation and to an altitude of 35 feet above runway elevation or until gear‑up selection, whichever comes first. - z' K$ m; ?0 F. M
Taxi
" M: T: l+ E. I* m; {The aircraft is moving on the aerodrome surface under its own power prior to takeoff or after landing. Taxi is a phase of flight. 6 g7 B3 p: G$ u: R
Taxi from Runway
( t5 j+ [0 a# N/ c$ @- s3 ?7 CBegins upon exiting the landing runway and terminates upon arrival at the gate, ramp, apron, or parking area, when the aircraft ceases to move under its own power. Taxi from runway is a sub‑phase of the taxi phase of flight. 4 `9 t8 s+ ?( h; A
Taxi to Runway0 c$ Y! |8 v4 a5 M' b: b0 a6 l2 ~2 G
Commences when the aircraft begins to move under its own power leaving the gate, ramp, apron, or parking area, and terminates upon reaching the runway. Taxi to runway is a sub‑phase of the taxi phase of flight.
$ I3 D! S, u! U3 V: V  A2 x+ w  H) \Taxi to Takeoff Position4 q% w' j  o1 t! ?9 Q2 S8 j0 x8 B0 Q% U
From entering the runway until reaching the takeoff position. Taxi to takeoff position is a sub‑phase of the taxi phase of flight. 7 Y: Z5 \, }% ~9 c
Turbulence Encounter8 J$ }" b7 a! `9 j: e
In‑flight turbulence encounter. Turbulence encounter is an occurrence category.
. k+ Q  s' D5 {2 s3 ^Type Certificate
9 O  Y) p% e1 u8 A4 z# V1.A document issued by a Contracting State to define the design of an aircraft type and to certify that this design meets the appropriate airworthiness requirements of that State. (ICAO Annex 8)
/ S/ ~/ J: l; A! \. @4 f/ b2.A type certificate is the document issued by the certifying authority to the organization that holds design responsibility. The type certificate may cover one or more groupings of aeronautical products having similar design, performance, and safety characteristics. (CICTT)
5 R6 r, {4 R" e% j6 IUncontrolled Descent
) n  m: B4 K, n* e+ ?- H$ GA descent during any airborne phase in which the aircraft does not sustain controlled flight. Uncontrolled descent is a phase of flight.
! d+ Y. |# u/ L. V6 P( H5 u7 rUndershoot/Overshoot3 A; ^! M. \2 e% r' O$ ?
A touchdown off the runway surface. Undershoot/overshoot is an occurrence category. 8 e1 b+ f( |: M
Unknown# a: M0 C! W7 o8 \9 Q; l0 q
Phase of flight is not discernable from the information available. Unknown is a phase of flight.
# }( q# H6 d* ]" PUnknown or undetermined7 S2 {! ^  m# z8 f0 Q# ?4 t) ^1 A
Insufficient information exists to categorize the occurrence. Unknown or undetermined is an occurrence category.
  f3 J: H8 a2 c# PWindshear or Thunderstorm
& B! s0 E" E  X/ j" w5 D; y2 _Flight into windshear or thunderstorm. Windshear or thunderstorm is an occurrence category. " t+ H7 e  Z4 P
您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册


航空域名|蓝天公司|Archiver|民航论坛 民航社区 ( 渝ICP备10008336号 )

GMT+8, 2019-11-18 18:51 , Processed in 0.046800 second(s), 10 queries .

Powered by Discuz! X2

© 2001-2011 MinHang.CC.

回顶部