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波音术语表 boeingstartup glossary [复制链接]

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发表于 2011-10-11 12:58:22 |显示全部楼层
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ACMI Agreement  A lease contract between two parties, through which an entity with an air operating certificate (an air carrier) is the lessor.  The lessor provides the aircraft, crews, maintenance, and insurance (ACMI). The second party, in most cases also with an air operating certificate, is the lessee.  The lessee is responsible for the schedule, flight charges, cargo handling, crew support, flight operations, ramp handling, aircraft servicing, fuel, and so on. Charges are typically based on an hourly rate, with a minimum number of hours to be operated per specified period.   
Aircraft ULD  An assembly of components consisting of any of the following: 1. Aircraft container 2. Aircraft pallet and pallet net 3. Aircraft pallet and pallet net over a nonstructural container or igloo The purpose of the unit load device (ULD) is to enable individual pieces of cargo to be assembled into a standard-size unit to facilitate efficient loading and unloading of aircraft having compatible handling and restraint systems. 
Airline Tariff Publishing Company (ATPCO)  A corporate entity wholly owned by certificated air carriers that publishes and distributes passenger fares and cargo tariffs throughout the air transport, travel, and shopping industries. 
Air Operator's  The AOC is the key link to safety oversight. It attests to an airline's competence as 
Certificate (AOC)  to safe operation and it determines who is responsible for an airline's safety oversight. In the US it is issued by the FAA.  In the UK it is the Safety Regulation Group of the CAA. An AOC is one of the criteria required in order for the FAA or CAA to grant an operating license. Known also as an Air Carrier Certificate in the US. 
AS 1825 Volume  The Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. (SAE) Aerospace Standard.  AS 1825, issued July, 1983, developed recommended standards for determining usable internal volumes in a variety of areas. Generally speaking, container volume is calculated as 93.5 percent of the external envelope volume.  For pallets, volume is determined by making the following allowances:  1. Pallet thickness: 0.75 in (19mm) for commercial and 2.25 in (57mm) for military. 2. Length and width: assumes a 2-inch setback from the outer edges of the pallet. Height: controlled by a 2-inch clearance dimension allowance to the minimum aircraft envelope through which the pallet must pass.  For detailed information, see the referenced Aerospace Standard. 
Available seat-kilometer (ASK)  Or available seat-miles (ASM). Measure capacity. The number of seats on an airplane multiplied by the number of kilometers flown (empty or full) by that airline (i.e. airline capacity). 
Available tonne-miles or tonne-kilometers  A measure of airline or aircraft cargo capacity and production; calculated as the product of total cargo payload capacity and distance flown. 
Average daily flight hour utilization  Represents the average number of flight hours flown in scheduled service per day per aircraft for the total fleet of operated aircraft. 

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Base maintenance  Comprises in-depth inspections known as system checks and structural checks, as well as the consequent non-routine tasks. . A system check is traditionally known as a C-check and is typically done annually. A structural check is also known as a D-, 4C-, or SI-check.  This complete structural inspection and restoration of an airplane is referred to as the completion of a maintenance cycle. When in a blocked maintenance program, this inspection is accomplished after an aircraft has been in operation from 4-10 years, depending on the operator, airplane type, and utilization. 
Bilateral agreement  An agreement or treaty between two nations, contracting for reciprocal international air service to be operated by designated carriers of each nation.  The agreement may include provisions for the types of aircraft to be used, frequency of service, intermediate stops en route, aircraft airworthiness compliance, insurance requirements, fuel taxation, and arbitration procedures.  These are normally standardized agreements applied to negotiations between one nation and numerous other nations, which allow for the inclusion of different routes and service points by various carriers. 
Break-even load factor  Represents the number of (RPKs) at which scheduled passenger revenue would be equal to operating expenses. 
Codeshare  An interline partnership where one carrier markets service and places its code on another carrier's flights. This offers carriers an opportunity to provide service to destinations not in their route structure. These schedules are considered online bookings for most situations. An exception could be the minimum connecting time, which is sometimes equal to the off-line connection time. 
Cost per available seat-kilometer (CASK)  Or CASM (cost per available seat-mile) The unit operating cost of an airline expressed for each seat mile offered.  Operating cost divided by ASK.  Expressed in cents. 
Cargo load factor  The percentage of capacity available to carry cargo that is actually used to carry such cargo. Load factor may be calculated on the basis of volume, weight, or unit loading device capabilities.  On passenger aircraft, cargo capacity excludes the space necessary to carry passenger baggage.  The most common method of computing cargo load factor is the ratio of the actual cargo load by weight to the available cargo weight capacity based on a carrier’s cargo density assumptions.   
Cargo revenue tonne-mile or tonne-kilometers  A measure of cargo operation production. Calculated as the product of cargo carried (revenue tons or tonnes) and the distance flown in the revenue service.  Cargo tonnage includes freight, express, and mail.   
Certification, ULD  Approval by the appropriate governmental airworthiness authorities indicating that the aircraft unit load device (ULD) meets their safety requirements. 

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Charter  A non-scheduled flight operated according to the national laws and regulations of the country being served, as provided for in Article 5 of the Chicago Convention. A flight on which all (or almost all) the capacity which is occupied by passengers or cargo has been sold to one or more charters for resale. Sometimes charter operators seek to sell some seat-only tickets in order to fill the aircraft (some aviation partners are more liberal than others; some will allow any type of charter, including seat-only, subject to reciprocity; others control charter operations very tightly). 
CIF  A pricing method that includes cost, insurance, and freight. 
Code Sharing  An increasingly common marketing device whereby an airline places its designator code on a service operated by another airline.  When selling a service, the marketing carrier is required to tell passengers that the service will be operated by another carrier. 
Computer reservation system (CRS)  A computerized system that displays information on availability of seats and connecting services etc, and provides comprehensive facilities for direct booking by travel agents. 
Convertible aircraft  An aircraft which is certified for, and can be converted between, an all-passenger configuration and an all-cargo configuration. 
Damp Lease  An ACMI, but without the crew. The lessee would provide the crew. 
Deferred rate  An air cargo rate that is lower than the corresponding standard rates for a comparable shipment. Shippers using a deferred rate agree in advance to a lower level of service in return for the reduced rate. 
Direct operating cost  All costs incurred in operating the aircraft including the cost of ownership. 
Dry lease  An aircraft leasing arrangement between two parties. The lessor provides the aircraft only to the lessee, who then provides the crew, fuel, maintenance, insurance, and so on required for operation. (See “ACMI” and “wet lease.”) 
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)  The European Aviation Safety Agency is the centerpiece of the European Union’s strategy for aviation safety. Their mission is to promote the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation.  (Refer to http://www.easa.eu.int/ws_prod/g/g_about.php) 
Extended Operations (ETOPS)  Certification requirement that allows extended range operations for those flights conducted over a route that contain a point further than one hour flying time at the approved one-engine inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport. 
Fleet Planning  Determine what aircraft should be operated and in what numbers to meet the needs of the business. Typically, this involves evaluating new and existing aircraft types, comparing all the costs and checking compatibility with the existing fleet and route network. 

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General commodity rate  The tariff rates published that are applicable to all articles or commodities not specifically identified elsewhere in the carrier’s governing rules tariff as a “Specific Commodity.” Often abbreviated as “G.C.” 
High-capacity aircraft  Equivalent to the term “widebody aircraft.” Specifically refers to B747, B767, B777, DC-10, MD-11 and other large aircraft types. 
Hub and spoke system  A hub is an airport on which traffic from a number of peripheral points is concentrated, and which is in turn linked by direct flights to peripheral (spoke) points. Such systems can involve linking a gateway airport to a number of domestic points (common in the US) or can be used in change of gauge operations. Compare with point-to-point. 
Hundredweight  The standard tariff unit used for establishing U.S. domestic cargo rates for shipments over 100 pounds that are rated on a weight basis.  Hundredweight is abbreviated as cwt. 
Identification code  The IATA code designation on a unit load device, which indicates its type, size, category, serial number, and owner or registrant. 
Indirect operating cost  All costs incurred by the airline whether the aircraft is flown or not.  Such costs are marketing, administration, rent, IT. 
Interlining  Changing, at an intermediate point on a journey, from one aircraft to an aircraft of a different airline but without any sharing of the airline codes. Compare code sharing. 
International Aviation Safety Assessments (IASA) Program  The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) established the IASA program through public policy in August of 1992.  FAA's foreign assessment program focuses on a country's ability, not the individual air carrier, to adhere to international standards and recommended practices for aircraft operations and maintenance established by the United Nation's technical agency for aviation, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).  (Refer to www.faa.gov/avr/iasa/) 
Internal volume, ULD  The maximum total available cubic space within a cargo container or pallet net envelope. The internal volume of containers with the same type or designation varies with manufacturer and materials. The Pallets and Containers section of the StartupBoeing website indicates the AS 1825 Volume, which is generally calculated as 93.5 percent of the external envelope volume. This serves as a practical internal volume figure, which accommodates the majority of manufacturing variations. 
International Air Cargo Association  A worldwide not-for-profit Air Cargo Industry Association with broad-based membership that includes airlines, forwarders, airports, ground handlers, all-cargo carriers, motor carriers, multimodal operators, and customs agencies. The organization’s primary objective is to advance the interests of the air cargo industry and strengthen its contribution to world trade. (Refer to www.tiaca.org) 

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International Air Transport Association (IATA)  A voluntary industry association founded in 1919, which is open to schedule air carriers whose home countries are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). IATA is actively involved in virtually every aspect of airline operations and management. Primary functions include provision of a wide range of services to airlines, airports, governments, and consumers. Primary products and services include consulting, publications, and training for both passenger- and cargo-related issues. (Refer to www.iata.org) 
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)  A United Nations body formed in December 1944 under the auspices of the Chicago Convention with the objectives of developing the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fostering the planning and development of international air transport so as to: ensure safe and orderly growth of international aviation throughout the world; encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes; encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for civil aviation; meet the needs of peoples of the world for safe, regular and efficient and economical air transport; prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition; ensure the rights of states are respected; avoid discrimination between states; and promote the safety of flight. 
Inclusive tour  The sale of transport and accommodation as a package. 
Line maintenance  Routine servicing, troubleshooting, and maintenance corrective actions required for airplane dispatch.  Line maintenance generally includes transit checks, daily checks, and service checks, all of which are traditionally called the A-check.   
Load factor  The percentage of capacity available to carry payload that is actually utilized. 1. Cargo load factor: The percentage of cargo load by weight based on a computed cargo weight capacity based on a density assumption. This is the most common method of computing cargo load factor. 2. Passenger load factor: The percentage of seats available that are actually purchased by passengers. 3. Position load factor: The percentage of loaded ULDs to cargo ULD positions available on an aircraft. 4. Volume load factor: The percentage of the volume actually used to carry cargo to the usable internal volume of ULDs and bulk compartments. 5. Weight load factor: The percentage of actual cargo weight to the maximum payload weight available on an aircraft when loaded for a specific range. 
Lower deck ULD  A unit load device (ULD) (pallet or container) carried in the lower deck/hold/lobe cargo compartment. These units are commonly designated with an “LD” prefix, plus a number. Many come in both full and half sizes, as related to the width of the lower deck (e.g., LD-1 through LD-11). 
Main deck ULD  A unit load device (ULD) (pallet or container) carried on the main or primary aircraft payload deck. These units are commonly designated with an “A” or “M” prefix, plus a number (e.g., A, A2, Modified A, M1, M4, M6). 

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Manufacturer’s empty  The weight of an aircraft’s structure, power plants, systems, furnishings, and other 
weight (MEW)  required items of equipment that are an integral part of a particular aircraft configuration. MEW is essentially a “dry” weight, including only those fluids (e.g., hydraulic) in closed systems. 
Maximum gross weight for a ULD  The maximum allowable combined weight of the unit load device (ULD) and its contents/payload. 
Maximum landing weight (MLW)  The maximum certified total aircraft weight for landing, as limited by aircraft strength and airworthiness requirements. 
Maximum takeoff weight MTOW)  The maximum certified total aircraft weight at takeoff brake release, as limited by aircraft strength and airworthiness requirements. 
Maximum zero fuel weight (MZFW)  The maximum certified total aircraft weight allowable before usable fuel must be loaded in the aircraft, as limited by aircraft strength and airworthiness requirements. 
Operating Empty  Manufacturer’s Empty Weight plus Standard and Operational (S & O) items. 
Weight (OEW)  Standard Items Equipment and fluids not considered an integral part of a particular aircraft and not a variation for the same type of aircraft. These items may include, but are not limited to, the following: Unusable fuel and other unusable fluids Engine oil Toilet fluids and chemicals   Fire extinguishers, pyrotechnics and emergency oxygen equipment Structure in galleys, buffets and bars Supplementary electronic equipment Operational Items Personnel, equipment and supplies necessary for a particular operation but not included in Manufacturing Empty Weight or Standard Items. These items may vary for a particular aircraft and may include, but are not limited to, the following: Crew and Baggage Manuals and navigational equipment Removable service equipment for cabin, galleys and bars   Food and beverages, including liquor Usable fluids other than those in useful load   Life rafts, life vests and emergency transmitters Aircraft unit load devices 
Operating Margin  Represents operating profit as a percentage of total revenue. 
Point to Point  A system whereby an airline's route network is composed of a number of city pairs, not necessarily linked by hub airports. This system is favored by low cost carriers such as Southwest Airlines (in the US), easyJet and Ryanair (in Europe). Compare with hub and spoke. 

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Revenue Passengers  Represents the number of scheduled fare paying passengers booked. 
Revenue per available seat-kilometer (RASK)  Or RASM (Revenue per available seat-mile) The unit revenue based on yield multiplied by load factor. How much revenue an airline is receiving per seat in its system. Expressed in cents.  
Revenue passenger-kilometer (RPK)  Or RPM (Revenue passenger-mile) Measures traffic. The number of fare-paying passengers multiplied by the number of km’s they fly. 
Sectors Flown  Represents the number of scheduled passenger or cargo flight sectors flown. 
Seat Pitch  The distance between the rows of seats and is measured from the back of one seat to the back of the seat behind, the measurements being taken from the same position on each seat. 
Shippers cooperative  An association of shippers, a legal entity, which acts in unison to increase the quantity of freight offered to the carriers for transport. A key objective of most shippers cooperatives is to obtain lower cost volume rates. A shippers cooperative may, in some cases, also act as an agent of the direct air carrier.  
Standard-body aircraft  Aircraft which generally have a fuselage diameter of less than 200 inches (5.08 meters). Passenger: Commonly referred to as “single-aisle” aircraft.  Cargo: In most configurations and applications, this limits main deck cargo loading to a single row of full-size unit load devices longitudinally. The cargo aircraft are divided into two categories based on structural payload capability: 1. Small standard-body, with payloads from 25,000 lb (11,340 kg) to 65,000 lb (29,495 kg). Examples: DC-9F, 737-200C 2. Medium standard-body, with payloads from 65,000 lb (29,485 kg) to 120,000 lb (54,430 kg). Examples: B737-300SF, B757-200F, and DC-8-73F. 
Structural-limit payload  Maximum aircraft payload calculated as a structural limit: maximum zero fuel weight minus operating empty weight. 
Tare weight  The weight of an empty unit load device (ULD) (pallet or container), including all liners, doors, fittings, and nets. This varies by manufacturer for a given ULD type. 
Tare weight allowance  A “free weight” allowance given to shippers as part of a unitization incentive program to encourage the use of unit load devices. 
Ton  A unit of weight measurement. As most commonly used, a “short ton,” or U.S. ton (2,000 pounds), as compared to a “long ton” (2,240 pounds). 
Ton-mile  One ton transported a distance of one mile. 
Tonne  The French spelling of “ton” used in the air cargo industry to denote a metric ton (1,000 kg or 2,204.6 lb). 
Tonne-kilometer  One metric ton transported a distance of one kilometer 

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Unit load  A number of individual pieces of freight or cargo in a single box or container, or on a pallet, and held in place with a net or similar device, to make them suitable for transporting, stacking, or storage as a single unit. It may also be a single large item packaged for transporting, stacking, or storage. 
Volume utilization  A measure of the proportion of the unit load device ULD volume used to stow cargo expressed as a percentage. Volume utilization is calculated as follows:  Volume utilization = ULD volume used for cargo divided by ULD total internal volume 
Weight break  A cargo tariff parameter, which describes the weight of a cargo shipment at which a lower rate per pound (or per kilogram) becomes effective. (See “minimum weight” and “pivot weight.”) Example: 0–99 kg, $.45/kg; 100–250 kg, $.42/kg; over 250 kg, $.38/kg 
Wet lease  A leasing arrangement between two parties. The lessor typically provides the aircraft and crew. Other operational requirements such as fuel, insurance, ground services, and maintenance are as negotiated. In the practical sense, wet leases function between the general provisions of an aircraft-only “dry lease” and an “ACMI agreement.” (See “ACMI” and “dry lease.”) 
Workrate  The product of the number of trips an aircraft makes in the period, times the average trip distance, times the cargo capacity. It is primarily used in macroeconomic-approach fleet planning. 
Yield  Passenger: Passenger revenues divided by RPKs.  It describes how much revenue and airline is receiving per kilometer flown. Expressed in cents. Cargo:  Air transport revenue per unit of weight and distance. For U.S. domestic and international traffic, it is ordinarily stated as dollars per ton-statute mile. For international traffic, it is generally stated as units of currency per tonne-kilometer. The term “yield” is often confused with “average revenue.”  Yield considers the distance carried, while average revenue does not. 

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AAPA  Association of Asia-Pacific Airlines 
ACI  Air Cargo, Inc. 
ACMI  Aircraft, crews, maintenance, and insurance 
AD  Airworthiness directive 
AEA  Association of European Airlines 
AFM  Airplane Flight Manual 
AOC  Air operator’s certificate 
APU  Auxiliary power unit 
ATC  Air Traffic Control 
ATK  Available tonne-kilometers 
ATM  Available ton-miles 
ATPCO  Airline Tariff Publishing Company 
B  Boeing, aircraft manufacturer (e.g., B747F) 
BCF  Boeing Conversion Freighter 
CAA  Civil Aviation Authority (United Kingdom) 
CAAC  Civil Aviation Authority of China 
CFMI  CFM International, engine manufacturer, a GE/SNECMA consortium 
CIS  Commonwealth of Independent States 
Combi  Combined main deck passenger/cargo aircraft 
CRAF  Civil Reserve Air Fleet 
CRS  Computer reservation system 
Cu  Cubic 
DDG  Deviation Dispatch Guide 
DOT  Department of Transportation (United States) 
EASA  European Aviation Safety Agency 
EFIS  Electronic flight information system 
EPNdB  Effective perceived noise level in decibels 
ER  Extended range 
ETOPS  Extended operations 
EU  European Union 
FAA  Federal Aviation Administration (United States) 
FAR  Federal Aviation Regulations (United States) 
FADEC  Full authority digital engine controls 
FCOM  Flight Crew Operations Manual 
FCTM  Flight Crew Training Manual 
FF  Frequent Flier 
FPPM  Flight Planning and Performance Manual 
ft  Feet 
ft3  Cubic feet (dry volume measure) 
FTK  Freight tonne-kilometers 

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FTM  Freight ton-miles 
GDS  Global Distribution Systems 
GE  General Electric, engine manufacturer 
H/K  Hushkit (engine noise—reducing system) 
hp  Horsepower 
IAE  International Aero Engines, engine manufacturer (R-R, P&W, JAE, MTU, and Fiat)  
IASA  International Aviation Safety Assessments (IASA) Program 
IATA  International Air Transport Association 
ICAO  International Civil Aviation Organization 
IFE  In-Flight Entertainment 
in  Inches 
JAA  Joint Aviation Authority 
JAR  Joint Aviation Regulations 
kg  Kilograms (metric weight measure) 
km  Kilometers (metric distance measure) 
kN  Kilonewtons (metric thrust measure) 
km/h  Kilometers per hour (speed in kilometers per hour) 
kn  Knots (speed in nautical miles per hour) 
kW  Kilowatts (electrical power/energy) 
lb/lbt  Pounds/pounds of thrust 
LTL  Less than truck load shipment 
L  Litres (metric liquid volume measure) 
M  Modified 
m3  Cubic meters (metric dry volume measure) 
MD  McDonnell Douglas, aircraft manufacturer (e.g., DC-8, MD-80) 
MMEL  Master Minimum Equipment List 
MEW  Manufacturer’s empty weight 
mi/h  Miles per hour (speed measure) 
MLW  Maximum landing weight 
MNPS  Minimum Navigation Performance Specification 
MTOW  Maximum takeoff weight 
MTW  Maximum taxi weight 
MZFW  Maximum zero fuel weight 
NAS  National Aerospace Standards 
NATO  North Atlantic Treaty Organization 
NCD  Nose cargo door 
NMI  Nautical miles (distance measure) 
NRN  Noise reduction nacelle 
OAG  Official Airline Guide 
OEM  Original equipment manufacturer 
OEW  Operating empty weight 

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P&W  Pratt & Whitney, engine manufacturer 
PAX  Passengers 
PF  Package freighter 
PIP  Performance improvement program 
QC  Quick change aircraft and/or associated equipment 
QRH  Quick Reference Handbook 
RE  Re-engine 
R-R  Rolls-Royce, engine manufacturer 
RTK  Revenue tonne-kilometers 
RPK  Revenue passenger kilometers 
RVSM  Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum 
SII  Stage 2 hushkit designation 
SIII  Stage 3 hushkit designation 
SCD  Side cargo door 
S/N  Serial number 
SF  Special freighter, converted passenger aircraft 
SHP  Shaft horsepower 
SQ  Square 
SR  Short range 
STC  Supplemental type certificate 
STOL  Short takeoff and landing 
TCAS  Traffic collision avoidance system 
TIACA  The International Air Cargo Association 
TSO  Technical standard order 
ULD  Unit load device 
U.S. gal  U.S. gallons (liquid volume measure) 
VFR  Visiting Friends and Relatives 

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发表于 2011-11-3 21:08:13 |显示全部楼层
非常感谢!

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发表于 2011-12-11 22:52:42 |显示全部楼层
波音术语表 boeingstartup glossary

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发表于 2012-2-20 15:29:29 |显示全部楼层
拿走学习了 感谢分享啊

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发表于 2012-2-22 15:47:52 |显示全部楼层
太好了楼主,谢谢了

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发表于 2012-2-24 08:31:09 |显示全部楼层
Thanks for sharing!

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发表于 2014-4-19 13:05:10 |显示全部楼层
职称英语等级考试介绍

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发表于 2014-4-20 08:15:55 |显示全部楼层
波音术语表 boeingstartup glossary

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发表于 2014-6-16 11:02:34 |显示全部楼层
知彼知己,勇往直前

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